ISSN 2219-5467 THE MONITORING OF PUBLIC OPINION: economic&social changes No5 (September-October) 2016; Issued 6 times a year. 24d year of publication
THEORY AND METHODOLOGY
Terentiev E.A., Nefedova A.I., Gruzdev I.A.
Visualization of questionnaire in online surveys: how different design features impact the data quality.
TERENTIEV Evgeny Andreevich – Leading Analyst, The Internal Monitoring Center, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0002-3438-2786
NEFEDOVA Alena Igorevna – Postgraduate Student, School of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia; Research Assistant, Laboratory for Economics of Innovation, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-6930-6281
GRUZDEV Ivan Andreevich – Director, The Internal Monitoring Center, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0003-3939-7909
Abstract.Online mode of data collection provides much more opportunities for the visualization of the questionnaire tools than the traditional paper format. Hence, there is a need to explore how various elements of the questionnaire design affect the quality of data collected via online surveys. This article presents an overview of the Russian and foreign studies devoted to this topic. We consider the following aspects: (1) visual design of the screen (colors, use of progress indicators showing the completion of on-line questionnaires), (2) layout of rating questions (radio button, slider, drag-and-drop), (3) visualization of open-ended questions (size of text input box, number of windows, use of explanatory and motivating introductions to questions), (4) presentation of non-substantive response options (use/non-use of non-substantive options, visualization tools). In conclusion, we make a number of recommendations concerning the questionnaire design that can help researchers make their surveys more effective and obtain a complete and high quality data.
Keywords:online surveys, data quality, visualization of questionnaire tools, rating questions, open-ended questions, non-substantive response options
Speech action grounds of algorithmic coding answers to an open-ended question: a case of defining a good institution.
OBEREMKO Oleg Alekseevich – Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Leading Researcher, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-7967-2533
Abstract. To reduce complexity and increase reliability of coding answers to open-ended questions are among the main targets of the survey methodology. Using the answers to an open-ended question recorded by the interviewers during a Russian national sample survey, the article demonstrates a procedure, which allows (1) explicating the syntactic-and-semantic structure of the answers, expected by the asked question designer, (2) reconstructing a repertoire of the questions, which were actually answered, (3) diagnosing communicative adequacy of the question as it was designed for a survey, (4) specifying instructions for interviewers how to record and for codifiers how to code the answers to an open-ended question, and (5) elaborating a comprehensive framework of school grammar categories to formal systematic (pre)coding answers to open-ended questions. The qualitative (logical-and-semantic) perspective on sample survey communication, it is shown, is extremely useful to grasp crucial differences between the respondents’ tongue(s) and the pollster’ one.
Keywords: open-ended questions, question-answer conversations, answers-based reconstruction of the answered questions, sample surveys
Satisficing as a strategy of respondents’ response in web-based surveys.
MARCHENKO Anna Alexandrovna – Marketing Analust. E-MAIL: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0003-4047-5468
Abstract. Jon Krosnick’s satisficing theory applied in mass survey is poorly studied in Russia. Satisficing theory suggests that a respondent being satisfied with a sufficient answer make fewer efforts than needed to choose an optimal (best) answer. Thus, respondent becomes dishonest. The basic factors that help choose satisficing strategy are complexity of tasks (questions), respondent’s different levels of cognitive capacity and motivation. The paper proposes a review of forms of the satisficing strategy adopted during the survey as well as tools to detect unfair respondents.
Keywords: satisficing, data quality, web-based surveys, unfairness, survey, respondent
Optimal Ratio Between Cell and Landline Phones in Dual-Frame Telephone Survey.
OSMANOV Timur Envarkirovich – leading expert, Public Opinion Foundation, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-4065-5787
ROGOZIN Dmitry Mikhailovich – Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Head of Laboratory for Federative Research Methodology, Russian Presidential Academy for National Economy and Public Administration; Senior Researcher, Institute of Sociology RAS, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0001-7879-1111
Abstract. Despite the fact that dual-frame sample are widely spread across the world, there is no consensus on the ratio of landline to cell interviews. The paper proposes a method of defining the ratio of cell and landline phones. This method is aimed to narrow the gap between the sample and population estimates of gender and age distribution for different regions. The paper is the first to propose justified proportions of cell and landline phones for almost every region of the Russian Federation. We provide reliability estimates of the designed method; it helps evaluate risks of this method application in any territorial entity. The obtained proportions could be used in the dual-frame sample designs of cell and landline phones. Further methodical observation and experiments are required to improve and to calibrate the suggested method.
Keywords: dual-frame sample of cell and landline phones, telephone surveys, sample design, sample theory, telephone usage in Russian regions
The experience in the analysis of the interviewers comments to telephone interviews.
IPATOVA Anna Alekseevna – PhD in Cultural Studies, Senior researcher, Laboratory for survey research methodology, Institute for Social Analysis and Prediction, The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-4065-5787
Abstract. Paradata is traditionally used for fabrication and falsification detecting. At the same time many survey researchers all over the world use paradata to improve data collection process and request interviewers to collect observations about main features of selected household or respondent. This paper examines the types of observations interviewers made for the telephone interview on sensitive topic. Observations collected by interviewers revealed to be valuable and rich information for the survey researcher that potentially can be used for data correction and more sophisticated understanding of the case.
Audio monitoring of the field work in telephone surveys: interviewer’s opinion.
LOSENKOVA Natalia Alexandrovna – Business Development Director. E-MAIL: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0002-9621-4374
GALASHOVA Natalia Borisovna – Candidate of Historical Sciences, Director E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-2465-9278
Abstract. The article presents the callcenter interviewer’s response to the results of audio monitoring. The paper highlights the expert role of interviewer in communication. Attempts are made to figure out how the interviews understand the purposes of the field work control carried out by the customers, how they perceive its results, and how the results shape the work efficiency. The interview roadmap consists of five parts: supervision purposes, free associations, differences in methodological approaches to the field work control, reaction related to the audio control, and forms of presentation of results of the control. On the one hand, attention to the interviewer’s recommendations can increase the efficiency of the field work. On the other hand, it is important to make the audio control be a helpful tool for the interviewer for improving the quality of data collection. Based on the analysis of 17 semi- structured interviews with competent and skilled call-center specialists, the authors identify the interviewer’s perception of supervision purposes, associations with the word «control», the interviewer’s emotions resulted from the control results. Certain recommendations concerning the form of the presentation of supervision results are provided.
Keywords: audio monitoring, telephone interview, call-center, survey tools, interviewing methodology and techniques, supervision functions, interviewer’s role
Sociological Monitoring of Inter-Ethnic and Inter-Confessional Relations of the Federal Agency for Ethnic Affairs.
KHAYKIN Sergey Romanovich – adviser to Head of the Federal Agency for Ethnic Affairs, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0001-9151-5357
BEREZHKOVA Sofia Borisovna – Candidate of Philological Sciences; adviser, Information and Analytical Department, Office of Monitoring, Analysis and Forecasting, Federal Agency for Ethnic Affairs, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-1520-2903
Abstract. Assessing the inter-ethnic and inter-confessional relations in the Russian Federation and indentifying the factors that cause tensions are the core of the Russian national policy. Despite generally favorable situation, new centers of tensions occasionally appear, and frozen conflicts come out; radical and extremist organizations, such as ISIL, an organization banned in Russia, have their effects on Russians. This problem is recognized by Russians; most of them point out the acuteness of the problem and intolerance in inter-ethnic and inter-confessional affairs. The paper describes a new model of sociological monitoring of inter-ethnic and inter-confessional relations consisting of three modules: simultaneous representative surveys in all the regions of Russia with a unified methodology; mixed methods research focused on challenging territories and/or ethnic and social groups; expert (advisory) panel. Russian perceptions of the poly-ethnicity in the Russian Federation and recognition of the equality of ethnic groups are considered using empirical evidence. The authors propose to tackle the problem of inter-ethnic intolerance in an integrated manner: on the one hand, it is necessary to monitor how people personally perceive their experiences of inter-ethnic and inter-confessional relationships, and on the other hand, how people themselves treat others in inter-ethnic and inter-confessional situations.
Keywords:monitoring of ethno-confessional relationships, inter-ethnic relationships, inter- confessional relationships, multi-ethnicity, rights of ethnic groups, ethnic and confessional discrimination
Confessional features of geopolitical orientations of the Ukrainian population.
PARASCHEVIN Maxim Anatolyevich – Candidate of Sociology, Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Sociology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine. E-MAIL: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0003-1384-4539
Abstract.The geopolitical orientation of Ukraine's population is determined by many historical and contemporary factors. The latter may involve the influence of the religious organizations (denominations) with different geopolitical views on Ukraine’s development direction. Against substantial political and socio-cultural secularization, their capacity to influence the situation is debatable. The data of a Ukrainian public survey conducted in June and July 2016 is used by the author. The study reveals that geopolitical orientations of religious people are partially influenced by confessional belonging. At the same time, the main Ukrainian denominations can be ranked according to affinity of views of the organizations and their parishioners. The highest degree of coincidence is among the parishioners of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, much lower degree - among the parishioners of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchate, and the lowest degree - among the parishioners of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Moscow Patriarchate. More similarities in the positions of the Church and its parishioners are found at the West-oriented parishes, whereas Russia-oriented Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Moscow Patriarchate has relatively little effect on the position of the believers.
Keywords: geopolitical orientations, Russia, Ukraine, European Union, confessional factor, Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchate, Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, inter-confessional differences
Students from the CIS countries in Russia: prerequisites for migration.
ZANGIEVA Irina Kazbekovna – Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Department of Sociological Research, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0001-5302-8101
SULEYMANOVA Anna Nailyevna – Student, “Applied Methods of Social Analysis of Markets” Master’s program, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0002-4379-3835
Abstract.International student admission allows not only to universally popularize Russian education but also to replenish human capital assets at an easy rate and to solve the problem of demographic pit at the expense of fresh graduates willing to permanently move to Russia after their graduation. The CIS states are currently the main source of enrollees willing to obtain higher education in Russia. The paper specifies the differences in socio-demographic characteristics and value orientations of those students who want to move permanently to Russia, to get back to their home country or to move permanently to any other country. Based on the survey involving 262 students from the CIS countries studying in the Moscow universities, the study shows that students with different migration intentions have substantial differences in value orientations according to the Schwartz Value Survey data; they also differ by their socio-demographic characteristics such as parents’ education level, household income and national identity.
Keywords:educational migration, CIS countries, value orientation, migration intentions, national identity
VOLCHENKO Olesya Viktorovna – Postgraduate Student, NRU HSE Campus, St. Petersburg, Russia; Research Assistant, Laboratory for Comparative Social Research, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-2595-8069
Abstract. The aim of the article is to fill in the gap in the studies of digital divide in Russia. Digital divide is a complex phenomenon describing unequal opportunities in access to Internet resources that cannot be explained only by affordability for Internet access or only by user’s personal choice. That is why the article considers a variety of socio-demographic factors affecting the Internet usage. Empirical section of the research is based on repeated cross-sectional data from the “Courier” database and investigates how digital divide is evolving as time goes by (period from July 2011 to November 2013). Binary logistic regression is used as the method of analysis. Statistical models show that common factors of digital inequality such as age, income, education, type of residence are related to both Internet usage in general and the use of Internet as an information source. The findings suggest that gender does not affect the probability of the Internet usage; however, men are more likely to use Internet than women. The dynamic component proves that the digital divide in the Internet use is decreasing but the digital divide in the information-oriented Internet usage is increasing.
Keywords:digital inequality, Internet usage, binary logistic regression, social inequality
Relative deprivation amidst financial and economic crisis.
SVISHCHEVA Anna Nikolaeva – postgraduate student, Faculty of Sociology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0002-0604-6531
Abstract.The paper considers the key concepts of the relative deprivation theory. The study describes the reference group that may induce negative experiences when compared unfavorably; the relationship between its basic functions and possible emergence of the relative deprivation feeling is investigated. The paper explores the basic elements of the empirical study of the relative deprivation such as the object of comparison, feeling of resentment and indignation, and level of relative deprivation. Using the progressive deprivation model, the author gives an attempt to explain mass protect actions in the Middle East, Europe, Russia and the U.S.A. amidst the 2008 global financial and economic crisis. The dynamics of per capita GDP growth rate, global food prices (declared and real prices sufficient for normal living according to average income) and unemployment rate are used for the comparison with the model. The conformity with the James C. Davies' "J-curve" hypothesis is revealed when analyzing the declared and real average income data. The author concludes that in order to predict the protest movement in Russia during the 2016 and 2018 elections, the current relative deprivation of Russians should be studied.
Keywords: relative deprivation, reference group, sense of deservingness / entitlement, expectations, achievements, inequality, feelings of resentment and indignation, collective protest behavior, financial and economic crisis
ANIKIN Vasiliy Alexandrovich – Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate professor, Faculty of Economic Sciences, National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE); Senior Research Fellow, Institute for Social Policy, NRU HSE, Moscow, Russia; Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia. E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-2316-4628
Abstract.This paper describes the normative value model typical for the Russian society. Based on the empirical data analysis of the third wave of the monitoring conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in autumn 2015, the study reveals that contrary to any vision of the Russian society as a divided porridge-like community, it has holistic sovereign-type outlook. Using the data of the Institute of Sociology RAS (and other research institutions), the author proves four main ideas this outlook is grounded upon: (1) Russia has a normative value system typical for “neo-etacratic” societies focused on the role of state; (2) This perception of relationships between state and society is due to that idea of Russia being a specific civilization which is integral part of the Russian national identity and represents the societal core of the entire macro-community; (3) The reverse side of this model of relationships between state, society and individual is that the state is responsible for breaking the public consensus even if the authority is not the source of these violations; (4) Risks related to social factors and de-legitimization are up; workers’ social protection is down, and workers’ rights are violated. Taking into account the historic forms of collective action of the Russian society, the author puts forward a question about the Russian society’s safety margin in relation to the structural violence of the bureaucratic power and lawlessness of the employers violating the basic labor rights of Russians. Are Russians ready for the use of force in tackling conflicts?
Keywords:national identity, Russian worldview, norms and values, etacratism, state and society, justice, structural violence, social conflicts, crisis
Abstract. Museums are ambiguous spaces. On the one hand, they provide some models built on social perceptions, and on the other, they are places open to interpretation. They are relational spaces. Spaces of various types of relations like institutional, interpersonal, international, intergeneration or intercultural relations. They are also places of relations and dialogue, establishing and negotiating meanings. In any event, museums are also, and perhaps above all, stories about people, events and the effects of their meetings. The article presents the results of qualitative research devoted to the reception of the museum, which was conducted in two museums the Museum of Oskar Schindler’s Enamel Factory in Krakow and the Museum of the History of Polish Jews POLIN in Warsaw. The project was titled «My way, my choice». Special attention is paid to the imaginative and relational character of the museum space.
Keywords: museum, narrative museum, museum space, social relations
Public transport in mobility practices: daily routes of citizens.
LYCHKO Sofia Karlovna – Research Fellow, Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia. E-MAIL: email@example.com ORCID: 0000-0002-7330-9821
MOSIENKO Natalya Leonidovna – Candidate of Sociological Sciences; Senior Research Fellow, Department of Regional and Municipal Administration, Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia. E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID: 0000-0002-5335-772X
Abstract. Urban spaces and agglomerations are permeated by multiple mobility flows which assure their coherence; this makes the study of citizens` movements relevant. The object of the survey is to describe daily route construction practices using public transport and to reveal factors of differentiation of these practices (evidence from the southern part of the Novosibirsk urban agglomeration). Informational database represents different sources such as mass survey of passengers, semi-formal interviews based on mental maps, formalized observations in public transport and at stops. The study is focused on the use of public transport from the point of view of passengers; the general context is also provided. The survey results include description of common characteristics of the passenger flow; reconstruction of key elements of daily route structure; analysis of travel time as one of the most important factors that determine route structure and travel-time activities; description of types of daily route construction; comparison of motivations to choose certain travel mode and perceptions of routes by public transport users and car owners.
Keywords: urban space, daily routes of citizens, mobility practices, travel time, perception of route