Russians have become more loyal towards immigrants; however they still think that they bring more problems than benefits for the receiving country.
MOSCOW, December 19, 2018. Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM) presents the data of a study devoted to Russians’ views on immigration and its social consequences as well as public perceptions of migrant’s involvement in various spheres.
Russians are getting more loyal toward immigration, however they still see its negative consequences: they basically mention crime rate (51%), higher level of competition in the labor market (49%). At the same time, 48% of Russians consider that migrants fill a labor gap in low-skill and low-wage sector. A relative majority of respondents are not inclined to think that immigrants put significant pressure on social sector in the country and enrich its culture (53%, for each). Migrant’s impact on economy is also viewed quite negatively (43%). However half of Russians (50%) support the idea to attract more Russians or Russian-speaking populations while restricting the entry for other nationalities; they also support entry into Russia for young and educated individuals and restrict entry for those not capable of working or with low level of education (50%).
Migrant involvement in most of spheres is perceived rather negatively. Generally, Russians would not like to see immigrants in local self-government (74%), law-enforcement bodies (69%), education (58%), public transport (58%), and health care (51%). Forty percent of respondents disapprove of migrant’s involvement in commerce (food markets). Russians tend to be more loyal towards service sector (64%), public utilities (62% with “likely positively” answer), and construction (49%). Over the recent five years, respondents have become more favorable to immigrants working in local self-government (from 86 to 74%), law-enforcement bodies (from 84 to 69%), education (from 81 to 58%), health care (from 76 to 51%), food services (from 70 to 43%), and public transport (from 68 to 58%).
Russians basically welcome migrants from Belarus (25%), Ukraine (21%), Germany (16%) and Kazakhstan (15%). The least favored countries are Tajikistan (15%), Uzbekistan (14%), Ukraine (13%), the USA (11%), and China (9%).
*Index shows Russians’ perceptions of immigration. Index is based on the question “To what extent do you agree/disagree with the following statements?” The answer “likely to agree” corresponds to “0.9”; “partly agree, partly disagree” – “0.5”; “likely to disagree” - “0.1”. Index is measured in points and may vary between 10 and 90.
Index of immigration employment is based on the question: “How do you perceive migrant’s involvement in the following spheres?” Index is calculated as a difference of positive and negative opinions and varies between -100 and 100 points. The higher the index, the more positive respondents are about migrant’s involvement in a particular sphere.
The VCIOM-Sputnik survey was conducted on December 16, 2018. The survey involved 1,600 Russians aged 18 and over. The survey was telephone-based and was carried out using stratified dual-frame random sample based on a complete list of landline and mobile phone numbers operating in Russia. The data were weighted according to selection probability and social and demographic characteristics. The margin of error at a 95% confidence level does not exceed 2.5%. In addition to sampling error, minor changes in question wording and different circumstances arising during the fieldwork can introduce bias into the survey.
|To what extent do you agree/disagree with the following statements? (closed-ended question, one answer per each position)|
|IMMIGRATION IS GOOD FOR ECONOMY IN GENERAL|
|Likely to agree||20||16||19|
|Partly agree, partly disagree||32||37||35|
|Likely to disagree||38||40||43|
|IMMIGRANTS INCREASE CRIME RATES|
|Likely to agree||63||65||51|
|Partly agree, partly disagree||23||23||26|
|Likely to disagree||10||8||19|
|IMMIGRANTS MAKE RUSSIA MORE OPEN TO NEW IDEAS AND CULTURES|
|Likely to agree||17||15||20|
|Partly agree, partly disagree||31||34||24|
|Likely to disagree||43||45||53|
|MIGRANTS PUT SIGNIFICANT PRESSURE ON THE RUSSIAN SOCIAL SECTOR (EDUCATION, HEALTH CARE, ETC.)***|
|Likely to agree||-||-||41|
|Partly agree, partly disagree||-||-||27|
|Likely to disagree||-||-||26|
|IMMIGRANTS PROVOKE COMPETITION IN THE LABOR MARKET AND TAKE JOBS FROM LOCAL POPULATION|
|Likely to agree||60||56||49|
|Partly agree, partly disagree||25||27||21|
|Likely to disagree||12||13||28|
|IMMIGRANTS FIIL A LABOR GAP IN LOW-SKILL, LOW-WAGE SECTOR|
|Likely to agree||50||47||48|
|Partly agree, partly disagree||29||34||21|
|Likely to disagree||17||15||28|
|WE NEED TO ENCOURAGE ENTRY FOR RUSSIANS AND RUSSIAN-SPEAKING POPULATION AND RESTRICT ENTRY FOR OTHER NATIONALITIES|
|Likely to agree||69||58||50|
|Partly agree, partly disagree||20||25||24|
|Likely to disagree||7||11||24|
|WE NEED TO ENCOURAGE ENTRY INTO RUSSIA FOR YOUNG, EDUCATED CITIZENS AND RESTRICT ENTRY FOR PERSONS UNABLE TO WORK AND WITH LOW EDUCATIONAL LEVEL|
|Likely to agree||57||53||50|
|Partly agree, partly disagree||25||29||22|
|Likely to disagree||12||12||25|
|How do you perceive migrant’s involvement in the following spheres? (closed-ended question, one answer per each position)|
|FOOD, CLOTHES MARKETS|
|Immigration employment index **||-14||-13||8|
|Immigration employment index **||-17||-46||2|
|SERVICE SECTOR (DRY CLEANING, SHOE REPAIRING, ETC.)|
|Immigration employment index **||-6||3||39|
|Immigration employment index **||-17||-43||-24|
|CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIRS|
|Immigration employment index **||-3||-3||8|
|PUBLIC UTILITIES (YARD-KEEPERS, PLUMBERS, ETC.)|
|Immigration employment index **||-10||8||33|
|HEALTH CARE (DOCTORS, MEDICAL ATTENDANTS, NURSES)|
|Immigration employment index **||-32||-59||-13|
|EDUCATION ( (PRE-SCHOOL TEACHERS, TEACHERS)|
|Immigration employment index **||-37||-68||-29|
|LAW ENFORCEMENT BODIES|
|Immigration employment index **||-45||-74||-49|
|Immigration employment index**||-50||-77||-57|
|In your opinion, is the entry into Russia for people from the following countries desirable? (open-ended question, up to 5 answers, % of total respondents, answers of at least 2% of respondents)|
|In your opinion, is the entry into Russia for people from the following countries unwanted? (open-ended question, up to 5 answers, % of total respondents, answers of at least 2% of respondents)|
|Any Muslim state||2|
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