Press release №2108
08.10.2018
THE 1993 CRISIS: TWENTY-FIVE YEARS LATER

IN BRIEF

  • 90% of Russians are aware of the shooting at the White House in 1993
  • Respondents often say that they favored Yeltsin (24%) rather than Khasbulatov or Rutskoy (12%)
  • The crisis was caused by split within the elite (34%)
  • 63% of respondents say it was justified to use force to restore control over the situation

As before, Russians consider that the 1993 constitutional crisis was caused by the split within the political elite rather than struggle between the supporters of different ideas, values and approaches towards country’s reforms.

MOSCOW, October 8, 2018. Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM) presents the data of a study devoted to the views of the 1993 constitutional crisis and whether the use of force was justified to restore order.

Today the awareness of the 1993 political standoff between Yeltsin and the parliament headed by Khasbulatov   resulted in mass riots in Moscow is higher (90%) than five years ago (80% in 2013): including 35% of those who are well aware and 55% who heard something. Nine percent say they learned the crisis it during the survey. Those who are well informed about what was happening in 1993 in Moscow are older people (51% among those aged 60 and over). Those who are unaware are mainly young respondents aged 18-24 (34%).

Asked whose side they were on, 32% of respondents say that they did not manage to gain insight into the situation; a further 32% remained undecided (or they say that they were too young or were not born yet). This share is 73% among those aged 18-24. The remainder report they supported the president (24%) rather than the parliament (12%). 

The key reason behind the 1993 crisis is the split within the elite (34%; a decrease from 38% in 2013), according to those who are aware of the crisis. Twenty-two percent of respondents consider that there were divergent views between the president and the parliament. Struggle between the supporters of democratic values and the remnants of the Soviet regime is mentioned less frequently (16%). Only 7% say it was a confluence of coincidence.

The share of those who believe that the use of force during the 1993 crisis was justified has decreased (from 69% in 2013 to 63% in 2018). On the contrary, the number of those who oppose this stance has increased (from 17% to 26%).

The VCIOM-Sputnik survey was conducted on October 3, 2018. The survey involved 1,600 Russians aged 18 and over. The survey was telephone-based and was carried out using stratified dual-frame random sample based on a complete list of landline and mobile phone numbers operating in Russia. The data were weighted according to selection probability and social and demographic characteristics. The margin of error at a 95% confidence level does not exceed 2.5%. In addition to sampling error, minor changes in question wording and different circumstances arising during the fieldwork can introduce bias into the survey.

The 2013 results are based on household surveys.
The October 1993 political standoff between president Yeltsin and the parliament headed by Khasbulatov ended up with riots and shooting at the White House, the parliament’s dissolution and extension of the presidential power. How well are you aware of those events? (closed-ended question, one answer, % of total respondents)
  2013 2018
Very well aware 34 35
I heard something but I do not know any details/do not remember details 46 55
This is the first time I hear about it 16 9
Don’t know 4 1

 

The October 1993 political standoff between president Yeltsin and the parliament headed by Khasbulatov ended up with riots and shooting at the White House, the parliament’s dissolution and extension of the presidential power. How well are you aware of those events? (closed-ended question, one answer, % of total respondents) 2018
  Total respondents Aged 18-24 Aged 25-34 Aged 35-44 Aged 45-59 60 and over
Very well aware 35 4 20 31 44 51
I heard something but I do not know any details/do not remember details 55 62 58 63 51 46
This is the first time I hear about it 9 34 22 4 4 1
Don’t know 1 0  0 2 1 2

 

This year marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of the 1993 crisis. Do you remember which side you were on back then? (closed-ended question, one answer, % of those who are aware or heard of those events)
  2013 2018
Yeltsin’s side 26 24
Parliament’s side (Khasbulatov, Rutskoy) 16 12
I did not manage to take in the situation 38 32
Don’t know // I was too young//I was not born yet 20 32

  

This year marks the twenty-fifth anniversary of the 1993 crisis. Do you remember which side you were on back then? (closed-ended question, one answer % of those who are aware or heard of those events) 2018
  Total respondents Aged 18-24 Aged 25-34 Aged 35-44 Aged 45-59 60 and over
Yeltsin’s side 24 0 3 16 38 33
Parliament’s side (Khasbulatov, Rutskoy) 12 1 4 6 13 22
I did not manage to take in the situation 32 26 26 34 36 32
Don’t know // I was too young//I was not born yet 32 73 67 44 13 13

  

In your opinion, what was the main cause of the crisis? (closed-ended question, one answer, % of those who are aware or heard of those events)
  2013 2018
Split within elite; desire to keep power by any means   38 34
Split views between the president and the parliament  concerning reforms and economic development 22 21
Fight between the supporters of democratic values and the Soviet system remnants   19 16
It was a confluence of circumstances; there were no tangible reasons 5 7
Other 1 3
Don’t know 15 19

  

In your opinion, what was the main cause of the crisis? (closed-ended question, one answer, % of those who are aware or heard of those events) 2018
  Total respondents Aged 18-24 Aged 25-34 Aged 35-44 Aged 45-59 60 and over
Split within elite; desire to keep power by any means  34 20 34 30 37 38
Split views between the president and the parliament  concerning reforms and economic development 21 27 17 20 22 22
Fight between the supporters of democratic values and the Soviet system remnants  16 23 13 20 16 13
It was a confluence of circumstances; there were no tangible reasons 7 8 7 6 6 7
Other 3 0 2 4 4 4
Don’t know 19 22 27 20 15 16

  

Was the use of force on October 3-4, 1993 justified to restore the control over the situation?  (closed-ended question, one answer, % of those who are aware or heard of those events)
  2013 2018
Rather yes 17 26
Rather not 69 63
Don’t know 14 11
Note: Using materials from the site www.wciom.ru or wciom.com, as well as distributed by VCIOM, the reference to the source (or hyperlink for the electronic media) is obligatory!
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